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  1. Sword in the Stone in Tuscany Proven Real and Likely Inspiration for Excalibur
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The sword of the catholic kings was famous in all its empire. Fernando, son of Juan II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez, contracted marriage in the 19 Valladolid of October of , between strong oppositions to the same one. The consanguinity of both spouses they were prime was solved through one bula signed by Calixto Pope, bula that had been falsified by the bishop of Segovia. When finding out Enrique IV that the marriage had been completed without its consent, declared to his daughter Juana like legitim and heiress to the throne.


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This real decision caused a series of you intrigue around two sides, those that supported to Juana and those in favor of Isabel. The death without naming successor to the throne of Enrique IV unleashed a war of succession, that lasted seven years, in charge of those in favor of the legitimacy of Juana and those of Isabel.

Sword in the Stone in Tuscany Proven Real and Likely Inspiration for Excalibur

The Concord of Segovia, signed in , would determine the part that to each one corresponded to him in the government. Image of the sword of Catolics Kings. Conflict between Isabel and Juana followed present after coronation, since Alfonso V of Portugal, husband of Juana, sent an offensive in support of this one, offensive that was disputed in the battles of Toro and Albuera after who Isabel, that winner left, was recognized queen by Cortes of Madrigal. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki.

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Appearance The Sword of Kings is long, with a brown-colored handle and hilt, and a distinctive blade. Use Whilst attacking Kattegat , King Horik showed the sword to his son, Erlendur , saying that if the gods willed it, he would one day possess it as his son.

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Trivia Many cultures and kingdoms had ceremonial regalia, such as swords or other items symbolising kingship and regality. Examples include: - The British St. In Robert de Boron 's Merlin , the first tale to mention the "sword in the stone" motif, Arthur obtained the British throne by pulling a sword from an anvil sitting atop a stone that appeared in a churchyard on Christmas Eve. As Malory writes: " Whoso pulleth out this sword of this stone and anvil, is rightwise king born. However, in the most famous English-language version of the Arthurian tales, Malory's 15th-century Le Morte d'Arthur , early in his reign Arthur breaks the Sword from the Stone while in combat against King Pellinore , and is given Excalibur by the Lady of the Lake in exchange for a later boon.

In the Vulgate Mort Artu , Arthur is at the brink of death and so orders Griflet to throw the sword into the enchanted lake; after two failed attempts as he felt such a great sword should not be thrown away , Griflet finally complies with the wounded king's request and a hand emerges from the lake to catch it. This tale becomes attached to Bedivere instead of Griflet in Malory and the English tradition. In Welsh legends, Arthur's sword is known as Caledfwlch.

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In Culhwch and Olwen , it is one of Arthur's most valuable possessions and is used by Arthur's warrior Llenlleawg the Irishman to kill the Irish king Diwrnach while stealing his magical cauldron. The name, which can also mean "hard cleft" in Irish , appears in the plural, caladbuilc , as a generic term for "great swords" in Togail Troi "The Destruction of Troy " , a 10th-century Irish translation of the classical tale.

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Though not named as Caledfwlch, Arthur's sword is described vividly in The Dream of Rhonabwy , one of the tales associated with the Mabinogion as translated by Jeffrey Gantz : "Then they heard Cadwr Earl of Cornwall being summoned, and saw him rise with Arthur's sword in his hand, with a design of two chimeras on the golden hilt; when the sword was unsheathed what was seen from the mouths of the two chimeras was like two flames of fire, so dreadful that it was not easy for anyone to look.

Geoffrey's Historia is the first non-Welsh source to speak of the sword. Geoffrey says the sword was forged in Avalon and Latinises the name "Caledfwlch" as Caliburnus. When his influential pseudo-history made it to Continental Europe , writers altered the name further until it finally took on the popular form Excalibur various spellings in the medieval Arthurian romance and chronicle tradition include: Calabrun , Calabrum , Calibourne , Callibourc , Calliborc , Calibourch , Escaliborc , and Escalibor [22].


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  • The legend was expanded upon in the Vulgate Cycle and in the Post-Vulgate Cycle which emerged in its wake. Both included the work known as the Prose Merlin , but the Post-Vulgate authors left out the Merlin continuation from the earlier cycle, choosing to add an original account of Arthur's early days including a new origin for Excalibur.

    This is in contrast to later versions, where Excalibur belongs solely to the king. The challenge of drawing a sword from a stone also appears in the later Arthurian stories of Galahad , whose achievement of the task indicates that he is destined to find the Holy Grail.

    In many versions, Excalibur's blade was engraved with phrases on opposite sides: "Take me up" and "Cast me away" or similar. In addition, when Excalibur was first drawn, in the first battle testing Arthur's sovereignty, its blade blinded his enemies. Malory [23] writes: " thenne he drewe his swerd Excalibur, but it was so breyght in his enemyes eyen that it gaf light lyke thirty torchys. In some tellings, Excalibur's scabbard was said to have powers of its own, as the one wearing it would not lose even a drop of blood.

    Any wounds received while wearing the scabbard would not bleed at all, thus preventing the death of the wearer. For this reason, Merlin chides Arthur for preferring the sword over the scabbard, saying that the latter was the greater treasure. In the later romance tradition, including Le Morte d'Arthur , the scabbard is stolen from Arthur by his half-sister Morgan le Fay in revenge for the death of her beloved Accolon and thrown into a lake, never to be found again.

    This act later enables the death of Arthur at the Battle of Camlann.

    soilstones.com/wp-content/2020-02-06/2002.php Excalibur is by no means the only weapon associated with Arthur, nor the only sword. Welsh tradition also knew of a dagger named Carnwennan and a spear named Rhongomyniad that belonged to him. Carnwennan "little white-hilt" first appears in Culhwch and Olwen , where Arthur uses it to slice the witch Orddu in half. Geoffrey also names Arthur's shield as Pridwen , but in Culhwch , Prydwen "fair face" is the name of Arthur's ship while his shield is named Wynebgwrthucher "face of evening".


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    The Alliterative Morte Arthure , a Middle English poem, mentions Clarent, a sword of peace meant for knighting and ceremonies as opposed to battle, which Mordred stole and then used to kill Arthur at Camlann. When drawn by a worthy or well-born man, the entire blade would blaze with fire.

    Rhydderch was never reluctant to hand the weapon to anyone, hence his nickname Hael "the Generous", but the recipients, as soon as they had learned of its peculiar properties, always rejected the sword. There are other similar weapons described in other mythologies.